Print Page   |   Contact Us   |   Report Abuse   |   Sign In   |   Join
Sign In


Forgot your password?

Not a Member?

Calendar

6/3/2014 » 6/6/2014
National Conference of Private Forest Landowners

Online Surveys
Latest News

e-Newsletter



How did you hear about us?

 

Enter your email address to receive alerts from Forest Landowners Associationin your inbox!



 

[FOUNDATION] PERC page 13
Share |

Market Access and Forest Stewardship:   How Sustainability Certification and Renewable Biomass Mandates Threaten Nonindustrial Private Forests

References

1 Smith, W.B., P.D. Miles, J.S. Vissage and S.A. Pugh. 2002. “Forest Resources of the United States.” USDA, Forest Service (2002) General technical report. NC-241, 2004.

2 Damery, David. 2005. “Landowner Driven Sustainable Forest Management and Value-Added Processing: A Case Study in Massachusetts, USA.” Journal of Sustainable Forestry 24 (2/3): 229-243; Zhang, Yaoqi, Daowei Zhang, and John Schelhas. 2005. “Small-Scale Nonindustrial Private Forest Ownership in the United States: Rationale and Implications for Forest Management.” Silva Fennica 39(3): 443-454.

3 Rickenbach, Mark G. 2002. “Forest Certification of Small Ownerships: Some Practical Challenges.” Journal of Forestry 100(6): 43-47.

4 York, Abigail M., Marco A. Janssen and Elinor Ostrom. (in press). “Incentives Affecting Land Use Decisions of Nonindustrial Private Forest Landowners.” International Handbook of Environmental Politics, ed. P. Dauvergne.

5 Stein, Susan, et. al., 2005. “Forest on the Edge.” U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: General Technical Report, PNW-GTR-636.

6 White, Eric. M., and Rhonda Mazza. 2008. “A Closer Look at Forests on the Edge: Future Development on Private Forests in Three States.” U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: General Technical Report, PNW-GTR-758.

7 Kuhns, M. R., M. W. Brunson, and S.D. Roberts. 1998. “Landowners’ Educational Needs and How Foresters Can Respond.” Journal of Forestry 96 (8): 38-43.

8 Zhang, Yaoqi, Daowei Zhang, and John Schelhas. 2005. “Small-Scale Nonindustrial Private Forest Ownership in the United States: Rationale and Implications for Forest Management.” Silva Fennica 39(3): 443-454.

9 U.S. Forest Service. 2011. Retrieved online June 23, 2011 at: http://www.fs.fed.us/openspace/fote/benefits.html.

10 Butler, Brett.J., and Earl.C. Leatherberry. 2004. “America’s Family Forest Owners.” Journal of Forestry 102 (7): 4-9.

11Best, Constance, and Laurie A. Wayburn. 2001. America’s Private Forests: Status and Stewardship. Washington, D.C.: Island Press; Damery, David. 2005. “Landowner Driven Sustainable Forest Management and Value-Added Processing: A Case Study in Massachusetts, USA.” Journal of Sustainable Forestry 24(2/3): 229-243; Zhang, Yaoqi, Daowei Zhang, and John Schelhas. 2005. “Small-Scale Nonindustrial Private Forest Ownership in the United States: Rationale and Implications for Forest Management.” Silva Fennica 39(3): 443-454.

12Butler, Brett J., and Earl C. Leatherberry. 2004. “America’s Family Forest Owners.” Journal of Forestry 102 (7): 4-9. Note these statistics concern family owned forests, a subset of nonindustrial private forests.

13 Schroeder, Richard. 2007. “Report on Terms Used in Biomass Credit Legislation.” BioResource Management, Inc.

14 Schroeder, Richard. 2007. “Report on Terms Used in Biomass Credit Legislation.” BioResource Management, Inc.

15 Wallace, Rebecca. 2011. “Study Suggests Deforestation Not Correlated with Industrial Roundwood Harvest.” Forest Products Laboratory Newsline 10(3): 1, 6. USDA Forest Service.

16 National Research Council. 1998. Forested Landscapes in Perspective: Prospects and Opportunities for SustainableManagement of America’s Nonfederal Forests. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

17 Stein, Susan, and B. Butler. 2004. “On the Frontline: Private Forests and Water Resources.” Wildland Waters. Summer. F.S. 790. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 24 p. http://www.fs.fed.us./wildandwaters/.

18 Id.

19 U.S. Forest Service. 2011. Retrieved online June 23, 2011 at: http://www.fs.fed.us/openspace/fote/benefits.html.

20 Stein, Susan, et. al., 2005. “Forest on the Edge.” U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: General Technical Report, PNW-GTR-636.

21 Carnus, Jean-Michel, et al. 2006. “Planted Forests and Biodiversity.” Journal of Forestry 104(2): 65-77.

22York, Abigail M., Marco A. Janssen and Elinor Ostrom. (in press).“Incentives Affecting Land Use Decisions of Nonindustrial Private Forest Landowners.” International Handbook of Environmental Politics, ed. P. Dauvergne.

23Obviously, revenues from wood products are not the only factor influencing NIPF conversion. Not all private forests produce wood products; and those that do might convert to other land uses (or not) for reasons unrelated to market access and prices.

24White, Eric. M., and Rhonda Mazza. 2008. “A Closer Look at Forests on the Edge: Future Development on Private Forests in Three States.” U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: General Technical Report, PNW-GTR-758.

25Stein, Susan, et. al., 2005.“Forest on the Edge.” U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: General Technical Report, PNW-GTR-636.

26 Wear, David N., and John G. Greis. 2002. "Southern Forest Resource Assessment." General Technical Report SRS-53. USDA Forest Service, Sourthern Research Station. Asheville, NC. 635p.

27 White, E. M., & Mazza, R. 2008. "A Closer Look at Forests on the Edge: Future Development on Private Forests in Three States." U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: General Technical Report, PNW-GTR-758.

28 Stein, Susan, et. al., 2005. “Forest on the Edge.” U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: General Technical Report, PNW-GTR-636.

29 White, Eric. M., and Rhonda Mazza. 2008. “A Closer Look at Forests on the Edge: Future Development on Private Forests in Three States.” U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: General Technical Report, PNW-GTR-758.

30 Alig, R.J., A.J. Plantinga, S. Ahn, and J.D. Kline. 2003. “Land Use Changes Involving Forestry in the United States: 1952 to 1997 with projections to 2050.” Gen. Tech. Report PNW-GTR-587. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station; Choe, S.H., J. Wu, and R. Alig. 2005. “Land Development under Regulation: Comparison between the East and West Sides of the Cascade Range in Oregon, Washington, and California.” Review of Urban and Regional Studies 17(1): 1-17.

31 U.S. Forest Service. 2011. Retrieved online June 23, 2011 at: http://www.fs.fed.us/openspace/fote/benefits.html

32 Bass, Stephen. 1997. Introducing Forest Certification: A report prepared by the Forest Certification Advisory Group (FCAG) for DGVIII of the European Commission. Joensuu, Finland: European Forest Institute.

33 Gullison, R.E. 2003. “Does Forest Certification Conserve Biodiversity?” Oryx 37(2): 153-165.

34 Bass, Stephen. 1997. Introducing Forest Certification: A report prepared by the Forest Certification Advisory Group(FCAG) for DGVIII of the European Commission. Joensuu, Finland: European Forest Institute.

35 York, Abigail M., Marco A. Janssen and Elinor Ostrom. (in press). “Incentives Affecting Land Use Decisions of Nonindustrial Private Forest Landowners.” International Handbook of Environmental Politics, ed. P. Dauvergne.Publisher Info?

36 Natural Resource Defense Council. 2011. “Good Wood: How Forest Certification Helps the Environment.” Retrieved online September 1, 2011 at http://www.nrdc.org/land/forests/qcert.asp.

37 The total acreage certified under SFI and American Tree Farm exceeds that certified under FSC, yet wood products retailers more commonly require FSC certification.

38Rickenbach, Mark G. 2002. “Forest Certification of Small Ownerships: Some Practical Challenges.” Journal of Forestry100(6): 43-47.

39 See Bass, Stephen. 1997. Introducing Forest Certification: A report prepared by the Forest Certification Advisory Group (FCAG) for DGVIII of the European Commission. Joensuu, Finland: European Forest Institute; Gullison, R.E. 2003. “Does Forest Certification Conserve Biodiversity?” Oryx 37(2): 153-165. See also Cubbage, F., D. Richter, M. Thompson, S. Moore, J. Edeburn,M. Chesnutt, M., Cox, J., & Boyette, W. 2003. Proceedings, Society of American Foresters 2002 National Convention: Forest certification costs and benefits: Experience of the Southern Center for Sustainable Forests, 236-42. Bethesda, MD.

40 Hansen, E., R. Fletcher, B. Cashore, and C. McDermott. 2006. “Forest Certification in North America.” Oregon State University Extension Service. Publication EC 1518. The authors note that group certification of several small forests can reduce the per acre cost for each forest landowner; however, group certification entails a loss in management flexibility and autonomy that many private nonindustrial forest owners will not accept.

41 Though certification under the American Tree Farm System and SFI is far less expensive, these certifications do not garner FSC’s market recognition nor do they satisfy mill procurement requirements that specifies FSC certification. Consequently, these are not meaningful substitutes for FSC certification.

42 Bass, S. K., Thornber, M. Markopoulos, S. Roberts and M. Grieg-Gran. 2001. “Certification’s Impacts on Forests, Stakeholders and Supply Chains.” Instruments for Sustainable Private Sector Forestry Series. International Institute of Environment and Development, London, UK.

43Van Deusen, Paul C., T. Bently Wigley, and Alan A. Lucier. 2010. “Some Indirect Costs of Forest Certification.” Forestry 83(4): 389-394; Gullison, R.E. 2003. “Does Forest Certification Conserve Biodiversity?” Oryx 37(2): 153-165.

44 Hansen, E., R. Fletcher, B. Cashore, and C. McDermott. 2006. “Forest Certification in North America.” Oregon State University Extension Service. Publication EC 1518.

45 Gullison, R.E. 2003. “Does Forest Certification Conserve Biodiversity?” Oryx 37(2): 153-165.

46Forest Stewardship Council. (2002a). Retrieved online 24 July 2011 at: http://www.fsc.org/certification.html.

47 Gullison, R.E. 2003. “Does Forest Certification Conserve Biodiversity?” Oryx 37(2): 153-165.

48 Bass, S. K., Thornber, M. Markopoulos, S. Roberts and M. Grieg-Gran. 2001. “Certification’s Impacts on Forests, Stakeholders and Supply Chains.” Instruments for Sustainable Private Sector Forestry Series. International Institute of Environment and Development, London, UK.

49 Stevens, J., M. Ahmad and S. Ruddell. 1997. “Forest Products Certification: A Survey of Manufacturers.”

50 Hansen, E., R. Fletcher, B. Cashore, and C. McDermott. 2006. “Forest Certification in North America.” Oregon State University Extension Service. Publication EC 1518.

51 Rickenbach, Mark G. 2002. “Forest Certification of Small Ownerships: Some Practical Challenges.” Journal of Forestry 100(6): 43-47.

52 Bass, Stephen. 1997. Introducing Forest Certification: A report prepared by the Forest Certification Advisory Group (FCAG) for DGVIII of the European Commission. Joensuu, Finland: European Forest Institute.

53 Hansen, E., R. Fletcher, B. Cashore, and C. McDermott. 2006. “Forest Certification in North America.” Oregon State University Extension Service. Publication EC 1518.

54 Rickenbach, Mark G. 2002. “Forest Certification of Small Ownerships: Some Practical Challenges.” Journal of Forestry 100(6): 43-47.

55 Hansen, E., R. Fletcher, B. Cashore, and C. McDermott. 2006. “Forest Certification in North America.” Oregon State University Extension Service. Publication EC 1518.

56 Bass, Stephen. 1997. Introducing Forest Certification: A report prepared by the Forest Certification Advisory Group (FCAG) for DGVIII of the European Commission. Joensuu, Finland: European Forest Institute.

57Ice, G. G., Schilling, E., & Vowell, J. (2010, September). Trends for forestry best management practices implementation. Journal of Forestry, 108(6), 267-273.

58Schnepf, Randy, and Brent D. Yacobucci. 2010. “Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS): Overview and Issues.” Congressional Research Service: R40155. October 14, 2010. Note, the original Renewable Fuel Standard was enacted in 2005 as part of the Energy Policy Act (Public Law 109-58).

59 The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. Public Law 110-140, §202.

60 U.S. Forest Service. “What Is Woody Biomass Utilization.” Retrieved online July 16, 2011 at: http://www.fs.fed.us/woodybiomass/whatis.shtml.

61Foster, D., and S. Silveria. 2005. “Sustainable Forestry for Bio-energy and Bio-based Products.” Retrieved online June 25, 2011 at: http://forestandrange.org/Biomass/Modules/Module%201/Credits/credits.asp.

62 Aguilar, Francisco and H.E. Gene Garrett. 2009. “Perspectives of Woody Biomass for Energy: Survey of State Foresters, State Energy Biomass Contacts, and National Council of Forestry Association Executives.” Journal of Forestry 107(6): 297-306.

63Smith, W. Brad, Patrick D. Miles, Charles H. Perry, and Scott A. Pugh. 2011. “Forest Resources of the United States, 2007.” Gen. Tech. Rep. WO-78. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington Office.

64 Mayfield, C., D.C. Foster, C. Tattersall, J. Gan and F. Susan. 2007. “Opportunities, Barriers, and Strategies for Forest Bioenergy and Bio-based Product Development in the Southern United States.” Biomass and Bioenergy 31(9): 631–637.

65 The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. Public Law 110-140, §201(1)(I)(ii), amending the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7545(o)).

66 Wear, David N., and John G. Greis. 2002. “Southern Forest Resource Assessment.” General Technical Report SRS-53. USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station. Asheville, NC. 635 p.

67 Munsell, J.F., and R. H. Germain. 2007. “Woody Biomass Energy: An Opportunity for Silviculture on Nonindustrial Private Forestslands in New York.” Journal of Forestry 105(8): 398-402.

68 Aguilar, Francisco, and H.E. Gene Garrett. 2009. “Perspectives of Woody Biomass for Energy: Survey of State Foresters, State Energy Biomass Contacts, and National Council of Forestry Association Executives.” Journal of Forestry 107(6): 297-306.

69 Joshi, Omkar, and Sayeed R. Mehmood. 2011. “Factors Affecting Nonindustrial Private Forest Landowners’ Willingness to Supply Woody Biomass for Bioenergy.” Biomass and Bioenergy 35(1):186-192.

70 Goergen, Michael T. 2009. “Forest Biomass.” Journal of Forestry 107(6): 282-283. Commentary.

71 Id.

72 Thompson, Tom. 2008. Society of American Foresters’ Letter to the House Committee on Energy and Commerce.

13

 

 

 

 

 

 

NAVIGATION

LOCATION

CONTACT US

Join
About Us
Donate
Members
Magazine
Policy Issues
Events
Get Involved
Home
News
Resources
Action Alerts
900 Circle 75 Pkwy, STE 205
Atlanta, GA 30339
Google Map
Toll-Free: 800.325.2954
Phone: 404.325.2954
Fax: 404.325.2955
Email: info@forestlandowners.com